NAWI’s first RFP directed at brine management
Opportunities for intensified brine management
"Evaporative processes e.g. mechanical vapor compression (MVC), humidification/dehumidification"
Phase transition, steep economy of scale, expensive materials
Modularity, low-cost thermal materials, small-scale systems, harnessing renewables
"Membrane processes using novel combinations of driving forces e.g. reactive membrane distillation, osmotically assisted reverse osmosis (RO)"
Novel driving forces and new combinations of traditional driving forces
Process optimization in multi-stage design, cost reductions, tailored membrane properties
"Operational innovations e.g. batch and semi-batch RO, flow reversal RO, high-pressure RO"
Manipulate the induction time for scaling , extend the operational range of the system
Integrated pretreatment, operando monitoring, predictive capabilities
"Electrically-driven processes e.g. electrodialysis (ED)"
Silica and chlorine tolerant, divalent separation for high-recovery RO
Low-cost ion exchange membranes, high permselectivity with low membrane resistance and water transference
"Cycling and extraction processes e.g. solvent extraction"
Possible advantages where low-temperature heat widely available, solvents non-hazardous
>99.99% solvent recovery, long solvent lifespan, low temperature swings, high water miscibility
"Innovative pretreatment e.g. selective removal prior to or during treatment"
Softening technologies often chemically intensive, avoid (or encourage) precipitation of hazardous contaminants
In-situ chemical generation
Source: National Alliance for Water Innovation
- Autonomous treatment system operation
- Precision separation of low-concentration problem constituents
- Resilience of water treatment units
- Intensification of brine management processes
- Modularity of systems and expansion of membrane-based technologies for lower and higher salinity ranges
- Electrification of treatment trains